研究稱濃縮咖啡磨得越粗越好
文章來源:未知 文章作者:enread 發布時間:2020-03-26 06:23 字體: [ ]  進入論壇
(單詞翻譯:雙擊或拖選)
煮一杯咖啡并不難。但一項新的研究表明,擁有數學和分析化學背景對煮咖啡并沒有壞處。因為研究人員將他們在材料科學和建模方面的技能應用到煮意式濃縮咖啡上,有了一個突破性的發現:與人們普遍認為的相反,用更少的豆子和更粗糙的研磨會讓你得到更好的效果。他們的研究發表在《Matter》雜志上。
Making a cup of coffee isn’t rocket science. But a new study shows that a background in math and analytical1 chemistry doesn’t hurt. Because researchers who applied2 their skills in materials science and modeling to brewing3 espresso have made a grounds-breaking discovery: contrary to popular belief, using fewer beans and a coarser grind will give you a more consistent shot. Their work appears in the journal Matter.
 
If you’re a coffee aficionado4, you’ve no doubt noticed that some days, you may get a great espresso; other days, not so much. Even with the same coffee, the same machine, the same settings.
 
To understand that variability, the researchers developed a mathematical model to explore how coffee is extracted or dissolved as water passes through the bed of grounds.
 
“Basically, what we did was to start by writing down some equations, which apply to just a single ground.”
 
Jamie Foster, a senior lecturer in mathematics and physics at the University of Portsmouth.
 
“So it’s a less intimidating5 task, because in a real coffee bed, you’ve got millions and millions of particles that are packed together in this very complicated way. And so a more tractable6 problem is to write down the equations on a single ground.”
 
To model the entire coffee bed, Foster and his colleagues copied that equation millions of times, stirred in a bit more math and then poured on the theoretical water.
 
“The model tells us what we should expect in an ideal situation when all of the coffee is being contacted by all of the water equally.”
 
Christopher Hendon, a computational chemist at the University of Oregon, who also took part in the study.
 
“And indeed, the model describes reality very well for particular grind settings, where there is a sufficient amount of large particles so the water can flow freely through that bed. But when you grind sufficiently7 fine, that’s when we started to see, in real life, a divergence8 from the expectation that the model was telling us.”
 
With the fine grind, some shots were stronger than predicted. But some were considerably9 weaker, which flies in the face of conventional wisdom.
 
“The thinking, if you want a stronger cup of coffee, is, well, I’ll grind it finer, because by doing that, I’ll have smaller particles in my grounds, and the smaller particles will have a higher surface area. And so this high surface area allows for more rapid extraction from the grains”
 
But what the researchers found is ...
 
“If you kind of overdo10 the grinding, what ends up happening is: the particles are so small, in fact, that they kind of clog11 up the gaps where the water’s trying to flow. And that actually hampers12 the extraction rather than helping13 it.”
 
And the same is true for the amount of coffee you start with—so that less can, counterintuitively, end up tasting like more.
 
“Since this article came out, there has been a tremendous amount of activity on Twitter—arguing, discussing, just general excitement and interest in the project. And independent of whether this helps make more reproducible coffee or not, this is a tremendous success—that we have got millions of people to have read a scientific article and engage with science. That’s a great success for scientific literacy.”
 


點擊收聽單詞發音收聽單詞發音  

1 analytical lLMyS     
adj.分析的;用分析法的
參考例句:
  • I have an analytical approach to every survey.對每項調查我都采用分析方法。
  • As a result,analytical data obtained by analysts were often in disagreement.結果各個分析家所得的分析數據常常不一致。
2 applied Tz2zXA     
adj.應用的;v.應用,適用
參考例句:
  • She plans to take a course in applied linguistics.她打算學習應用語言學課程。
  • This cream is best applied to the face at night.這種乳霜最好晚上擦臉用。
3 brewing eaabd83324a59add9a6769131bdf81b5     
n. 釀造, 一次釀造的量 動詞brew的現在分詞形式
參考例句:
  • It was obvious that a big storm was brewing up. 很顯然,一場暴風雨正在醞釀中。
  • She set about brewing some herb tea. 她動手泡一些藥茶。
4 aficionado 3xAzd     
n.…迷;運動迷
參考例句:
  • This is good news for postcard aficionado Drene Brennan.這對明信片迷杰納?布雷南來說是個好消息。
  • I'm a real opera aficionado.我是個真正的歌劇迷。
5 intimidating WqUzKy     
vt.恐嚇,威脅( intimidate的現在分詞)
參考例句:
  • They were accused of intimidating people into voting for them. 他們被控脅迫選民投他們的票。
  • This kind of questioning can be very intimidating to children. 這種問話的方式可能讓孩子們非常害怕。
6 tractable GJ8z4     
adj.易駕馭的;溫順的
參考例句:
  • He was always tractable and quiet.他總是溫順、恬靜。
  • Gold and silver are tractable metals.金和銀是容易加工的金屬。
7 sufficiently 0htzMB     
adv.足夠地,充分地
參考例句:
  • It turned out he had not insured the house sufficiently.原來他沒有給房屋投足保險。
  • The new policy was sufficiently elastic to accommodate both views.新政策充分靈活地適用兩種觀點。
8 divergence kkazz     
n.分歧,岔開
參考例句:
  • There is no sure cure for this transatlantic divergence.沒有什么靈丹妙藥可以消除大西洋兩岸的分歧。
  • In short,it was an age full of conflicts and divergence of values.總之,這一時期是矛盾與價值觀分歧的時期。
9 considerably 0YWyQ     
adv.極大地;相當大地;在很大程度上
參考例句:
  • The economic situation has changed considerably.經濟形勢已發生了相當大的變化。
  • The gap has narrowed considerably.分歧大大縮小了。
10 overdo 9maz5o     
vt.把...做得過頭,演得過火
參考例句:
  • Do not overdo your privilege of reproving me.不要過分使用責備我的特權。
  • The taxi drivers' association is urging its members,who can work as many hours as they want,not to overdo it.出租車司機協會勸告那些工作時長不受限制的會員不要疲勞駕駛。
11 clog 6qzz8     
vt.塞滿,阻塞;n.[常pl.]木屐
參考例句:
  • In cotton and wool processing,short length fibers may clog sewers.在棉毛生產中,短纖維可能堵塞下水管道。
  • These streets often clog during the rush hour.這幾條大街在交通高峰時間常常發生交通堵塞。
12 hampers aedee0b9211933f51c82c37a6b8cd413     
妨礙,束縛,限制( hamper的第三人稱單數 )
參考例句:
  • Prejudice sometimes hampers a person from doing the right thing. 有時候,偏見會妨礙人正確行事。
  • This behavior is the opposite of modeless feedback, and it hampers flow. 這個行為有悖于非模態的反饋,它阻礙了流。 來自About Face 3交互設計精髓
13 helping 2rGzDc     
n.食物的一份&adj.幫助人的,輔助的
參考例句:
  • The poor children regularly pony up for a second helping of my hamburger. 那些可憐的孩子們總是要求我把我的漢堡包再給他們一份。
  • By doing this, they may at times be helping to restore competition. 這樣一來, 他在某些時候,有助于競爭的加強。
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