面粉從何而來? 又是如何制成的呢?
文章來源:未知 文章作者:enread 發布時間:2020-04-07 07:23 字體: [ ]  進入論壇
(單詞翻譯:雙擊或拖選)
Where did the flour come from, and how was it made?
面粉從何而來? 又是如何制成的呢?
There are several kinds of flour—such as oat-flour, barley-flour, rice-flour, and maize-flour or corn-flour.
面粉的種類有很多, 例如燕麥粉、大麥粉、米粉、玉米粉。
But most of the flour used in Great Britain is wheat-flour.
然而, 英國使用的大部分面粉都是小麥粉。
Wheat-flour, of course, comes from the plant called "wheat. "
小麥粉當然就是由一種名叫“小麥”的植物制成。
The farmer sows the wheat in his ploughed fields in the late autumn or in the early spring.
晚秋或早春時分, 農民們在犁過的農田里種下小麥。
When the wheat plant comes up, it looks like a little blade of grass.
小麥破土而出時, 看起來就像是野草一樣。
During the summer the plant grows tall, with a long, hollow stem, and a head or ear of little green scaly1 flowers.
到了夏天, 小麥就已經長得很高了, 帶著一個長長的中空莖干以及一簇或一穗綠色的鱗狀小花。
They do not look much like flowers, as they have no brightly-coloured leaves.
它們看起來并不像花朵, 因為沒有顏色明亮的花瓣。
Each flower turns into a seed or grain, which becomes hard and round as it ripens2. When it is ripe, it turns yellow.
每一個花朵都會長成種子或谷粒, 一旦成熟, 就會變得又硬又圓, 而顏色則會泛黃。
Then the farmer cuts it down, or "reaps" it.
隨后, 農民們就會將其割下, 或者說是“收”麥子。
He carries the wheat to his barn, and there he thrashes it, or beats all the grains of corn out of the ears.
農民將麥子運到谷倉并打谷, 也就是將谷粒從麥穗中敲打出來。
The corn is then put into sacks and sold to a man called a miller3.
隨后, 農民將這些谷物捆裝在麻袋中販賣給磨坊主。
The miller grinds the corn between two large fiat4 stones which are called mill-stones, or between steel rollers.
磨坊主使用兩塊扁平的石頭(磨石)或鋼輥對這些谷物進行碾磨。
The husks or skins of the grains of corn are first rubbed off, and then the white inside or kernel5 of each grain is ground down to a fine powder.
谷物的外皮首先掉落下來, 然后, 里面的白色谷粒就被碾磨成了精細的粉末。
This powder has to be sifted6, to separate the husks from the flour.
 
然后, 人們利用篩子將面粉與外皮分離。
The husks are hard and coarse, and they would not be good food for us, for we could not digest them.
外皮堅硬且粗糙, 我們消化不了, 因此不適合用作食物。
Last of all, the miller puts the white flour into sacks, and sells it to the baker7.
最后, 磨坊主將白色的面粉裝在麻袋中銷售給面包房。
Shall we try to find out what wheat-flour is made of?
你是否想要知道小麥粉是由什么構成的呢?
Put a handful of the flour into a small bag made of fine muslin:
拿起一把面粉, 放入精致的棉布中;
tie up the mouth of this bag tightly, and then squeeze it for about five minutes in a basin of water.
將棉布做成口袋裝并收緊袋口, 然后在一盆清水中用力擠壓五分鐘。
You will see that the water becomes quite white.
你會發現清水將變成非常濃厚的白色。
Something must be coming out of the flour and passing through the muslin into the water. What can it be?
肯定有什么東西從面粉中分離出來, 透過棉布進入了水中。到底是什么呢?
Let the water in the basin stand for an hour, and you will then find a white powder at the bottom.
將盆中的水靜置一小時, 就會看到水底有一層白色粉末。
Pour off the water, and put the white stuff into a saucer to dry on the hob or in the oven.
將水倒掉, 把白色物質放入淺碟之中, 利用鐵架或火爐進行烘干。
If you mix a little of this dry white powder with a spoonful of boiling water, it swells8 up into a jelly just like starch9;
如果你將少量這種干燥的白色粉末與一勺開水相混合, 它就會像淀粉一樣膨脹成膠狀物;
indeed, the white powder is starch and nothing else.
實際上, 這種白色粉末正是淀粉。
So we see that flour contains a great deal of starch.
由此我們知道, 面粉中含有大量的淀粉。
Now open the muslin bag in which you washed the flour.
現在, 打開那個沖洗過面粉的棉布包。
Is there anything left inside it ?
里面還有什么剩余物質嗎?
Yes; there is a small quantity of a yellowish-white and very sticky substance.
有, 我們可以看到少量黃白色的粘稠物質。
The proper name for this sticky stuff is gluten.
這種東西的正式名稱就是面筋。
We may say, then, that flour consists of starch and gluten.
由此我們就可以說, 面粉中包括淀粉與小麥蛋白。
But it also contains some water, and a very little lime which the roots of the wheat plant sucked in from the soil.
不過, 這其中還有一些水分以及小麥的根部從土壤中吸收到的極少量碳酸鹽。
Of what use is flour? Every child knows that it is made into bread and puddings and pastry10.
面粉有什么用處呢? 孩子們都知道, 面粉可以用來制作面包、布丁與糕點。
 



點擊收聽單詞發音收聽單詞發音  

1 scaly yjRzJg     
adj.魚鱗狀的;干燥粗糙的
參考例句:
  • Reptiles possess a scaly,dry skin.爬行類具有覆蓋著鱗片的干燥皮膚。
  • The iron pipe is scaly with rust.鐵管子因為生銹一片片剝落了。
2 ripens 51963c68379ce47fb3f18e4b6ed340d0     
v.成熟,使熟( ripen的第三人稱單數 )
參考例句:
  • The sun ripens the crops. 太陽使莊稼成熟。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
  • Then their seed ripens, and soon they turn brown and shrivel up. 隨后,它們的種子熟了,不久就變枯萎。 來自辭典例句
3 miller ZD6xf     
n.磨坊主
參考例句:
  • Every miller draws water to his own mill.磨坊主都往自己磨里注水。
  • The skilful miller killed millions of lions with his ski.技術嫻熟的磨坊主用雪橇殺死了上百萬頭獅子。
4 fiat EkYx2     
n.命令,法令,批準;vt.批準,頒布
參考例句:
  • The opening of a market stall is governed by municipal fiat.開設市場攤位受市政法令管制。
  • He has tried to impose solutions to the country's problems by fiat.他試圖下令強行解決該國的問題。
5 kernel f3wxW     
n.(果實的)核,仁;(問題)的中心,核心
參考例句:
  • The kernel of his problem is lack of money.他的問題的核心是缺錢。
  • The nutshell includes the kernel.果殼裹住果仁。
6 sifted 9e99ff7bb86944100bb6d7c842e48f39     
v.篩( sift的過去式和過去分詞 );篩濾;細查;詳審
參考例句:
  • She sifted through her papers to find the lost letter. 她仔細在文件中尋找那封丟失的信。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
  • She sifted thistles through her thistle-sifter. 她用薊篩篩薊。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
7 baker wyTz62     
n.面包師
參考例句:
  • The baker bakes his bread in the bakery.面包師在面包房內烤面包。
  • The baker frosted the cake with a mixture of sugar and whites of eggs.面包師在蛋糕上撒了一層白糖和蛋清的混合料。
8 swells e5cc2e057ee1aff52e79fb6af45c685d     
增強( swell的第三人稱單數 ); 腫脹; (使)凸出; 充滿(激情)
參考例句:
  • The waters were heaving up in great swells. 河水正在急劇上升。
  • A barrel swells in the middle. 水桶中部隆起。
9 starch YrAyK     
n.淀粉;vt.給...上漿
參考例句:
  • Corn starch is used as a thickener in stews.玉米淀粉在燉煮菜肴中被用作增稠劑。
  • I think there's too much starch in their diet.我看是他們的飲食里淀粉太多了。
10 pastry Q3ozx     
n.油酥面團,酥皮糕點
參考例句:
  • The cook pricked a few holes in the pastry.廚師在餡餅上戳了幾個洞。
  • The pastry crust was always underdone.餡餅的殼皮常??鏡貌煌?。
TAG標簽: 英語科普 面粉
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