牛奶及其用途
文章來源:未知 文章作者:enread 發布時間:2020-04-14 06:41 字體: [ ]  進入論壇
(單詞翻譯:雙擊或拖選)
每個孩子都喜歡喝鮮牛奶。那香濃的味道,甜美的滋味是多么誘人!對于這樣一種極為有用的飲品,你肯定想要了解更多吧? 我們喝的牛奶幾乎全部來自奶牛的乳房。不過,人們還飲用其他動物的奶,例如羊、驢以及駱駝。
Every child likes to drink new milk. How pleasant it smells and how sweet it tastes! Do you not want to know something about this useful liquid? Nearly all the milk we use comes from the milk-bag or udder of the cow. But people also drink the milk of other animals, such as the goat, the ass1, and the camel.
All these animals have a plentiful2 flow of milk, which is intended for their own young ones. Animals which bring up or nourish their young on milk are called mammals.
Milk is an excellent food. It has been called a "model " food, for it contains just the things that we need to nourish our bodies, and these are mixed in just the right way.
Milk is a white fluid a little heavier than water. We call it a fluid because it will flow. All liquids are fluids, and so are all gases; for both liquids and gases will readily flow from one place to another. But solids, such as wood and iron, do not flow.
Of what is milk composed? Let your new milk stand all night in a glass jug3, say twelve inches in height; then in the morning you will see—or you ought to see—a rich, yellowish-white layer of cream one inch in thickness on the top of the milk. If your jug is six inches high, you should have a layer of cream half an inch thick.
This cream contains thousands of tiny balls of milk-fat, each ball having its own covering or skin. These balls rise to the top because they are lighter4 than the rest of the milk, just as a cork5 rises to the surface of water.
People skim off the cream and put it into a kind of wooden tub or barrel called a churn, in which they beat and dash it about by moving a plunger up and down, or by turning a handle.
Soon all the little balls of cream have their skins or coats broken, and then the tiny pieces of milk-fat inside them stick together and make a lump of yellow butter. You can make a little butter for yourself by putting a few spoonfuls of cream into a bottle, and shaking it as hard as you can for a while; but you will likely feel very tired before the butter appears.
 
The "skim-milk" which remains6 after the cream has been taken away is of a bluish-white colour; and while new milk sells for, perhaps, threepence per quart, skim-milk fetches only a penny. Yet there is good nourishment7 in skim-milk.
Let us add a little acid—vinegar will do—to some skim-milk. This makes it curdle9 , and we see little white jelly-like clots10 or "curds11" forming. We will strain off the curds by squeezing the curdled12 milk through a piece of muslin. The white and solid curds that remain only need pressing to turn them into "cheese. "
The watery13 liquid that runs through the muslin is called "whey. " Dissolved in the whey there is a little milk-sugar, the substance that makes new milk taste sweet, and also some lime.
Now we know why new milk is such an excellent food. The milk-fat and the milk-sugar which it contains warm our bodies and help us to do our work, the curd8 helps to form our flesh, and the lime helps to form our bones. You can now see how good it is for us to drink milk, and why we add milk to many other kinds of food, such as tea, coffee, and cocoa.
Have you ever seen condensed milk ? This kind of milk is made by boiling fresh milk for some time, so as to evaporate part of the water contained in it, and then adding some sugar. The sweet, thick liquid thus made is then put into tins, which are carefully closed and sealed, so as to keep out the air. If kept in those air-tight tins, condensed milk will remain good for years.


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1 ass qvyzK     
n.驢;傻瓜,蠢笨的人
參考例句:
  • He is not an ass as they make him.他不象大家猜想的那樣笨。
  • An ass endures his burden but not more than his burden.驢能負重但不能超過它能力所負擔的。
2 plentiful r2izH     
adj.富裕的,豐富的
參考例句:
  • Their family has a plentiful harvest this year.他們家今年又豐收了。
  • Rainfall is plentiful in the area.這個地區雨量充足。
3 jug QaNzK     
n.(有柄,小口,可盛水等的)大壺,罐,盂
參考例句:
  • He walked along with a jug poised on his head.他頭上頂著一個水罐,保持著平衡往前走。
  • She filled the jug with fresh water.她將水壺注滿了清水。
4 lighter 5pPzPR     
n.打火機,點火器;駁船;v.用駁船運送;light的比較級
參考例句:
  • The portrait was touched up so as to make it lighter.這張畫經過潤色,色調明朗了一些。
  • The lighter works off the car battery.引燃器利用汽車蓄電池打火。
5 cork VoPzp     
n.軟木,軟木塞
參考例句:
  • We heard the pop of a cork.我們聽見瓶塞砰的一聲打開。
  • Cork is a very buoyant material.軟木是極易浮起的材料。
6 remains 1kMzTy     
n.剩余物,殘留物;遺體,遺跡
參考例句:
  • He ate the remains of food hungrily.他狼吞虎咽地吃剩余的食物。
  • The remains of the meal were fed to the dog.殘羹剩飯喂狗了。
7 nourishment Ovvyi     
n.食物,營養品;營養情況
參考例句:
  • Lack of proper nourishment reduces their power to resist disease.營養不良降低了他們抵抗疾病的能力。
  • He ventured that plants draw part of their nourishment from the air.他大膽提出植物從空氣中吸收部分養分的觀點。
8 curd oYmzN     
n.凝乳;凝乳狀物
參考例句:
  • I'd like to add some pepper to the bean curd.我想在豆腐里加一點辣椒粉。
  • The next one is bean curd with crab roe.下一個是蟹黃豆腐。
9 curdle LYOzM     
v.使凝結,變稠
參考例句:
  • The sauce should not boil or the egg yolk will curdle.調味汁不能煮沸,不然蛋黃會凝結的。
  • The sight made my blood curdle.那景象使我不寒而栗。
10 clots fc228b79d0fbd8618ecc4cda442af0dd     
n.凝塊( clot的名詞復數 );血塊;蠢人;傻瓜v.凝固( clot的第三人稱單數 )
參考例句:
  • When you cut yourself, blood clots and forms a scab. 你割破了,血會凝固、結痂。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
  • Milk clots when it turns sour. 奶變酸就凝塊。 來自《現代英漢綜合大詞典》
11 curds c68e7d15631d3c2fb36a128d17feacff     
n.凝乳( curd的名詞復數 )
參考例句:
  • Little miss muffet sat on a tuffet eating some curds and whey. 小瑪菲特小姐坐在墊子上,吃著凝乳和乳清。 來自互聯網
  • The curds contain casein, fat and minerals. 凝乳中有酪蛋白、脂肪、礦物質。 來自互聯網
12 curdled 3f42074f4e391f7b63d99d49433e5f7f     
v.(使)凝結( curdle的過去式和過去分詞 )
參考例句:
  • The milk has curdled. 牛奶凝結了。 來自《現代漢英綜合大詞典》
  • Terror curdled his blood. 恐懼使他心驚膽顫。 來自《現代英漢綜合大詞典》
13 watery bU5zW     
adj.有水的,水汪汪的;濕的,濕潤的
參考例句:
  • In his watery eyes there is an expression of distrust.他那含淚的眼睛流露出驚惶失措的神情。
  • Her eyes became watery because of the smoke.因為煙熏,她的雙眼變得淚汪汪的。
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